Mobility in the 100 Largest Commuting Zones
 

Please see the FAQ section for column heading explanations. Click any column heading to sort. These statistics are based on Version 2.0 of the data, released January 17, 2014. For city rankings based on Version 1.0 of the data (released July 22, 2013), click here. Version 2.0 incorporates an additional year of income data (2012) and includes other technical changes.

Commuting
Zone Name
StateAbsolute Upward MobilityRelative Upward MobilityOdds of Reaching Top Fifth
Starting from Bottom Fifth
Salt Lake City Utah 46.2 0.264 10.8%
Scranton Pennsylvania 45.9 0.315 10.7%
Reading Pennsylvania 45.5 0.349 9.6%
Des Moines Iowa 45.3 0.348 9.1%
Bakersfield California 45.3 0.256 12.2%
Toms River New Jersey 45.2 0.323 12.2%
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 45.2 0.359 9.5%
Allentown Pennsylvania 44.8 0.359 8.3%
Honolulu Hawaii 44.8 0.232 10.5%
San Jose California 44.7 0.235 12.9%
Santa Barbara California 44.7 0.215 11.3%
Boston Massachusetts 44.6 0.322 10.5%
Madison Wisconsin 44.5 0.316 9.2%
San Francisco California 44.4 0.250 12.2%
San Diego California 44.3 0.237 10.4%
Manchester New Hampshire 44.2 0.296 10.0%
Minneapolis Minnesota 44.2 0.338 8.5%
Brownsville Texas 44.1 0.227 9.2%
Newark New Jersey 44.1 0.350 10.2%
Harrisburg Pennsylvania 43.9 0.360 7.9%
New York New York 43.8 0.330 10.5%
El Paso Texas 43.7 0.220 8.6%
Erie Pennsylvania 43.7 0.355 7.5%
Los Angeles California 43.4 0.231 9.6%
Providence Rhode Island 43.4 0.333 8.2%
Washington DC District of Columbia 43.2 0.330 11.0%
Seattle Washington 43.2 0.273 10.9%
Albany New York 43.1 0.358 8.3%
Omaha Nebraska 43.1 0.359 7.8%
Spokane Washington 43.1 0.287 9.3%
Portland Maine 42.8 0.294 8.1%
Houston Texas 42.8 0.325 9.3%
Sacramento California 42.7 0.257 9.7%
Poughkeepsie New York 42.6 0.330 9.5%
Bridgeport Connecticut 42.4 0.359 7.9%
Modesto California 42.4 0.261 9.4%
Syracuse New York 42.3 0.363 7.7%
Fort Worth Texas 42.3 0.320 9.1%
Santa Rosa California 42.3 0.248 10.0%
Denver Colorado 42.2 0.294 8.7%
Oklahoma City Oklahoma 42.2 0.342 8.2%
Buffalo New York 42.0 0.368 6.7%
Canton Ohio 41.8 0.378 6.5%
Tulsa Oklahoma 41.6 0.341 7.8%
Springfield Massachusetts 41.5 0.366 6.8%
Rockford Illinois 41.5 0.349 7.4%
Miami Florida 41.5 0.267 7.3%
Youngstown Ohio 41.3 0.388 6.7%
Fresno California 41.3 0.295 7.5%
Portland Oregon 41.3 0.277 9.3%
San Antonio Texas 41.1 0.320 6.4%
Philadelphia Pennsylvania 40.8 0.393 7.4%
Gary Indiana 40.7 0.358 8.1%
Eugene Oregon 40.5 0.294 7.9%
Austin Texas 40.4 0.323 6.9%
Dallas Texas 40.4 0.347 7.1%
Phoenix Arizona 40.3 0.294 7.5%
Grand Rapids Michigan 40.1 0.378 6.4%
Kansas City Missouri 40.1 0.365 7.0%
Las Vegas Nevada 40.0 0.259 8.0%
Tucson Arizona 39.9 0.290 7.1%
Pensacola Florida 39.7 0.335 6.1%
Cape Coral Florida 39.5 0.301 6.0%
Lakeland Florida 39.4 0.340 5.2%
Chicago Illinois 39.4 0.393 6.5%
Toledo Ohio 39.4 0.368 5.7%
Milwaukee Wisconsin 39.3 0.424 4.5%
Baton Rouge Louisiana 39.3 0.406 6.0%
Albuquerque New Mexico 39.3 0.315 6.6%
Sarasota Florida 39.2 0.304 6.8%
South Bend Indiana 39.2 0.387 6.0%
Tampa Florida 39.1 0.335 6.0%
Orlando Florida 39.1 0.326 5.8%
Port St. Lucie Florida 39.0 0.303 6.2%
Baltimore Maryland 38.8 0.412 6.4%
St. Louis Missouri 38.4 0.413 5.1%
Dayton Ohio 38.3 0.397 4.9%
Cleveland Ohio 38.2 0.405 5.1%
Nashville Tennessee 38.2 0.357 5.7%
New Orleans Louisiana 38.2 0.397 5.1%
Mobile Alabama 38.0 0.388 5.1%
Little Rock Arkansas 38.0 0.393 5.4%
Virginia Beach Virginia 37.9 0.384 5.4%
Louisville Kentucky 37.9 0.387 5.2%
Richmond Virginia 37.9 0.400 5.5%
Cincinnati Ohio 37.9 0.429 5.1%
Knoxville Tennessee 37.8 0.373 5.6%
Columbus Ohio 37.7 0.406 4.9%
Birmingham Alabama 37.6 0.392 5.0%
Jacksonville Florida 37.5 0.361 4.9%
Detroit Michigan 37.3 0.358 5.5%
Indianapolis Indiana 37.2 0.398 4.9%
Greenville South Carolina 37.1 0.381 4.7%
Raleigh North Carolina 36.9 0.389 5.0%
Greensboro North Carolina 36.5 0.395 4.7%
Atlanta Georgia 36.0 0.366 4.5%
Columbia South Carolina 35.9 0.399 3.7%
Charlotte North Carolina 35.8 0.397 4.4%
Fayetteville North Carolina 34.8 0.374 3.8%
Memphis Tennessee 33.7 0.416 2.8%