Causal Effects of the 100 Largest Commuting Zones
on Household Income in Adulthood
 
 

This table shows the percentage gain (or loss) in income from growing up in each of the 100 largest CZ’s in the U.S. for children in low-income families (25th percentile). For example, if a child were to grow up in the Seattle metro area instead of an average place, he/she would make about 12% more at age 26. The average level of household income at age 26 is $26,000, so this 12% gain translates to $3,120 of additional income. The table also shows estimates separately for boys and girls; click on any column heading to sort by that column. Click here for estimates for all CZs for both low- and high-income families.

 
 
Rank
(All Kids)
Commuting ZoneStateAll KidsBoysGirls
1 Seattle Washington 11.6% 9.1% 14.2%
2 Minneapolis Minnesota 9.7% 9.2% 10.1%
3 Salt Lake City Utah 9.2% 3.6% 15.3%
4 Reading Pennsylvania 9.1% 8.4% 9.7%
5 Madison Wisconsin 7.4% 10.4% 3.9%
6 Des Moines Iowa 6.6% 4.7% 8.5%
7 Omaha Nebraska 6.4% 5% 7.8%
8 Washington DC District Of Columbia 5.8% 4.7% 7.1%
9 Spokane Washington 5.6% 8.1% 2.7%
10 Portland Oregon 5.2% 7.6% 2.6%
11 Bakersfield California 4.7% 7% 2.2%
12 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 4.6% 5.4% 3.6%
13 Syracuse New York 4.5% 7.9% 0.6%
14 Canton Ohio 4.2% 8% 0%
15 Fort Worth Texas 3.7% 5.8% 1.4%
16 Las Vegas Nevada 3.7% - 1.7% 9.6%
17 Portland Maine 3.7% 6.5% 0.6%
18 San Diego California 3.3% 1.1% 5.7%
19 Erie Pennsylvania 3.3% 6.5% - 0.3%
20 Tulsa Oklahoma 3.3% 3.7% 2.8%
21 Toms River New Jersey 2.9% - 1.1% 7.4%
22 Honolulu Hawaii 2.9% 2% 3.8%
23 Santa Barbara California 2.7% 0% 5.5%
24 San Francisco California 2.5% - 0.3% 5.6%
25 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 2.1% - 0.1% 4.6%
26 Boston Massachusetts 2.1% 3.3% 0.8%
27 San Jose California 1.9% - 7.6% 12.4%
28 Manchester New Hampshire 1.6% 3.7% - 0.7%
29 Denver Colorado 1.3% 2.1% 0.5%
30 Allentown Pennsylvania 1.3% - 2.2% 5.1%
31 Brownsville Texas 1.2% 2.6% - 0.3%
32 Santa Rosa California 1.1% 0% 2.3%
33 Eugene Oregon 1% 2.9% - 1%
34 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 1% 0% 2.2%
35 Phoenix Arizona 0.7% - 3.2% 5%
36 Modesto California 0.6% - 2% 3.4%
37 Cleveland Ohio 0.5% 5.7% - 5.1%
38 Sacramento California - 0.2% - 4.5% 4.6%
39 Providence Rhode Island - 0.3% - 0.1% - 0.5%
40 Newark New Jersey - 0.3% 2.3% - 3.2%
41 Little Rock Arkansas - 0.4% 6.7% - 8.1%
42 Buffalo New York - 0.5% - 0.5% - 0.4%
43 Scranton Pennsylvania - 0.5% - 4.2% 3.6%
44 Gary Indiana - 1% 5.5% - 8.2%
45 El Paso Texas - 1.4% 0.9% - 3.9%
46 Grand Rapids Michigan - 1.4% 0.2% - 3.2%
47 Louisville Kentucky - 1.7% 1.4% - 5%
48 Kansas City Missouri - 1.7% - 2.5% - 0.8%
49 Columbus Ohio - 1.8% 3.6% - 7.7%
50 Philadelphia Pennsylvania - 2% - 5.2% 1.6%
51 Springfield Massachusetts - 2.2% - 0.8% - 3.6%
52 Albany New York - 2.3% 2.9% - 7.9%
53 Cincinnati Ohio - 2.3% - 0.1% - 4.7%
54 Jacksonville Florida - 2.6% 1.9% - 7.5%
55 Dallas Texas - 2.7% - 8.7% 3.9%
56 Miami Florida - 2.8% - 6.1% 0.9%
57 Houston Texas - 2.8% - 5.6% 0.3%
58 Toledo Ohio - 2.9% - 1.8% - 4%
59 Youngstown Ohio - 3.2% 2.8% - 9.9%
60 Rockford Illinois - 3.5% - 4.3% - 2.5%
61 Dayton Ohio - 3.7% - 4.3% - 2.9%
62 Lakeland Florida - 4.1% - 5.1% - 3%
63 Austin Texas - 4.3% - 4.3% - 4.2%
64 Bridgeport Connecticut - 4.6% - 6.8% - 2.1%
65 Knoxville Tennessee - 5% - 1.6% - 8.8%
66 St. Louis Missouri - 5% - 3.6% - 6.5%
67 Milwaukee Wisconsin - 5.4% - 6.8% - 3.9%
68 Nashville Tennessee - 5.5% - 3.4% - 7.7%
69 South Bend Indiana - 5.6% - 3.6% - 7.6%
70 Richmond Virginia - 5.8% - 4.8% - 6.7%
71 Mobile Alabama - 6.5% - 6.3% - 6.6%
72 Indianapolis Indiana - 6.6% - 3.1% - 10.4%
73 Cape Coral Florida - 6.8% - 14.7% 1.9%
74 Albuquerque New Mexico - 7% - 11% - 2.7%
75 Sarasota Florida - 7.2% - 9.1% - 5%
76 Tampa Florida - 7.4% - 10% - 4.4%
77 Atlanta Georgia - 8.1% - 7.9% - 8.2%
78 Baltimore Maryland - 8.2% - 14.3% - 1.4%
79 Tucson Arizona - 8.2% - 18.7% 3.4%
80 Poughkeepsie New York - 8.2% - 8% - 8.4%
81 Pensacola Florida - 8.4% - 10.4% - 6.1%
82 New York New York - 9% - 8.2% - 9.9%
83 Los Angeles California - 9.2% - 12.3% - 5.8%
84 Virginia Beach Virginia - 9.4% - 14.3% - 4%
85 Detroit Michigan - 9.5% - 15.4% - 2.8%
86 San Antonio Texas - 9.7% - 10% - 9.2%
87 Port St. Lucie Florida - 9.9% - 15.3% - 3.7%
88 Baton Rouge Louisiana - 10.4% - 4.8% - 16.5%
89 Birmingham Alabama - 10.5% - 12.8% - 7.9%
90 Chicago Illinois - 11.1% - 14% - 7.7%
91 Fresno California - 11.1% - 14.5% - 7.2%
92 Orlando Florida - 11.4% - 13.4% - 9%
93 Memphis Tennessee - 11.6% - 11.1% - 12.1%
94 Greenville South Carolina - 12.2% - 12.7% - 11.5%
95 Raleigh North Carolina - 12.6% - 11.8% - 13.3%
96 Columbia South Carolina - 13.9% - 16.3% - 11%
97 Charlotte North Carolina - 14.4% - 11.3% - 17.5%
98 Greensboro North Carolina - 14.8% - 15.9% - 13.3%
99 New Orleans Louisiana - 14.8% - 11.1% - 18.6%
100 Fayetteville North Carolina - 17.8% - 17.8% - 17.6%